Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome


Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) happens once fluid builds up within the small, elastic air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs.

The fluid keeps your lungs from filling with enough air, which suggests less O reaches your blood. This deprives your organs of the O they have to perform.

ARDS generally happens in human people that folks that those that those who ar already critically unwell or who have important injuries.

Severe shortness of breath — the main symptom of ARDS — usually develops within a few hours to a few days after the precipitating injury or infection.



The signs and symptoms of ARDS can vary in intensity, depending on its cause and severity, as well as the presence of underlying heart or lung disease. They include:

  • Severe shortness of breath
  • Labored and unusually rapid breathing
  • Low blood pressure
  • Confusion and extreme tiredness





Airway Obstruction


Airway obstruction, additionally called foreign body airway obstruction, happens once alittle item gets stuck in a very child’s throat or higher airway and makes it arduous for the kid to breathe.

Because of its tiny size, a child’s airway will get blocked once a chunk of food or atiny low, spherical object sort of a coin or marble gets lodged in their throat.

Other common home items like material cords or plastic baggage will strangle or suffocate a baby. On average, 5,000 kids, ages fourteen and below, area unit treated in hospital emergency rooms every year for airway obstruction. The majority of these children are ages 4 and under.


What are the symptoms of airway obstruction


  • A child with AN obstructed airway could exhibit the subsequent symptoms:
  • choking or gagging
  • sudden violent coughing
  • vomiting
  • noisy breathing or wheezing
  • struggling to breathe
  • turning blue



Asthma attack


Asthma is a long term condition in which air passages in the lungs become narrow due to inflammation and contraction of the muscles around the small airways. This causes symptoms such as cough, wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness. These symptoms are intermittent and are often worse at night or during exercise.

Some of the common triggers that can make asthma symptoms worse include viral infections (colds), dust, smoke, fumes, changes in the weather, grass and tree pollen, animal fur and feathers, dust mites (dermatophagoides), strong soaps, and perfume. These triggers vary from person to person.

Asthma is diagnosed mainly with lung function tests but other blood tests and allergy testing also helps in making proper diagnosis. The treatment of asthma is vast but  beta-2 agonists and corticosteroids remain the mainstay of asthma treatment.

Lifestyle and prevention measures such as avoiding triggers, avoiding foods that increase the risk of an asthma attack, and staying away from stress could be of great help when it comes to controlling asthma attacks. In severe cases, it can lead to a condition known as status asthmaticus that might require hospitalizationa



  • Asthma symptoms vary from person to person.
  • You may have rare respiratory disease attacks, have symptoms solely at sure times — like once exercise — or have symptoms all the time.
  • Asthma signs and symptoms include:
  • Shortness of breath
  • Chest tightness or pain
  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or unhealthy
  • A whistling or unhealthy sound once breathing (wheezing could be a common sign of respiratory disease in children)
  • Coughing or unhealthy attacks that square measure worsened by a respiratory virus, like a cold or the respiratory disease




What is atelectasis?


The lungs are a pair of organs in your chest that take in air to deliver oxygen to your body. Atelectasis is the term for a collapse of one or more areas in the lung.

When you take breathe in, your lungs full of with air. This air travels to air sacs in your lungs (alveoli), where the oxygen moves into your blood. The blood delivers the oxygen to organs and tissues throughout your body.

When air sacs become deflated because of atelectasis, they cannot inflate properly or take in enough air and oxygen. If enough of the lung is affected, your blood may not receive enough oxygen, which can cause health problems.

Atelectasis often develops after surgery. It is not mostly life-threatening, some cases, it needs to be treated soon .


What are the signs and symptoms of atelectasis?

If atelectasis affects only a small area of the lungs, you may not have any symptoms. But if it affects larger areas, the lungs cannot fill with enough air, and the oxygen level in your blood may go down. When this happens, uncomfortable symptoms can occur, including:


  • Trouble breathing (shortness of breath)
  • Increased heart rate
  • Coughing
  • Chest pain
  • Skin and lips turning blue



What is bronchiectasis?


Bronchiectasis may be a condition wherever the bronchial tubes of your lungs area unit for good broken, widened, and thickened.

These broken air passages allow bacterium and secretion to make up and pool in your lungs. This leads to frequent infections and blockages of the airways.

There is no cure for bronchiectasis, however it's manageable. With treatment, you'll usually live a standard life.

However, flare-ups should be treated quickly to take care of gas flow to the remainder of your body and stop more respiratory organ injury.



  • chronic daily cough
  • coughing up blood
  • abnormal sounds or wheezing in the chest with breathing
  • shortness of breath
  • chest pain
  • coughing up large amounts of thick mucus every day
  • weight loss
  • fatigue
  • change in the structure of fingernails and toenails, known as clubbing
  • frequent respiratory infections




Choanal Atresia

What is choanal atresia

Choanal atresia could be a blockage within the back of a baby’s nose that creates it arduous to breathe.
It’s usually seen in new borns with different birth defects, like Treacher Collins syndrome or CHARGE syndrome.
It’s more common than bilateral choanal atresia. Babies with this manner is also ready to compensate by breathing through the one open aspect of their nose.

There are two types of choanal atresia:

Bilateral choanal atresia. This type blocks both nasal passages.
It’s terribly dangerous as a result of babies breathe solely through their noses for the first four to 6 weeks of life. Unilateral choanal atresia. This type solely blocks one nasal passage, usually the one on the proper.

Signs of unilateral choanal atresia include:

•    Babies born with bilateral choanal atresia have a very hard time breathing. T
•    noisy breathing
•    thick fluid draining from one side of the nose
•    child can’t breathe while eating


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)


Chronic hindering respiratory organ sickness (COPD) is that the name for a bunch of respiratory organ conditions that cause respiration difficulties.

The most common are emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Emphysema slowly destroys air sacs in your lungs, which interferes with outward air flow. Bronchitis causes inflammation and narrowing of the bronchial tubes, which allows mucus to build up.

The top cause of COPD is tobacco smoking. Long-term exposure to chemical irritants can also lead to COPD. It’s a disease that usually takes a long time to develop.


Symptoms of COPD


The main symptoms of COPD are:

  • increasing breathlessness, particularly when you're active
  • a persistent chesty cough with phlegm – some human might dismiss this as simply a "smoker's cough"
  • frequent chest infections
  • persistent wheezing
  • weight loss
  • tiredness
  • swollen ankles from a build-up of fluid (oedema)






Croup is caused by an acute viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. It is also called laryngotracheobronchitis since it affects the larynx, trachea, and bronchi.

This infection ends up in inflammation, increased secretion production, and swelling of the higher airways.

Although croup usually resolves on its own, some children with croup will require admission to the hospital. Croup continues to be one of the most common causes of respiratory distress in young children.

Symptoms of Croup

  • cold, cough
  • hoarseness,
  • difficulty swallowing,
  • fever.